Lachlan spring: N8801151




1. TOPIC

Investigate the evidence on the relationship between meat and human health. What benefits does meat provide for human growth and development? You will need to include a nutrient analysis in relation to human physiology across the lifecourse. You must include a discussion of the types of cancers, illnesses and deaths said to be driven by an over-consumption of red meat.
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2. PRESENT YOUR ARTEFACT

This cultural artefact is a representation of the effects of over consumption of meats. “Evolution” by Patrick Boivin depicts what can be described as a “first world problem”. A metaphor that fatty fast foods and over consumption turning humans into pigs. The first of the illustrations being the under-developed human, next the Neanderthal followed by the modern man. Depicted with a gun and shovel, still possessing a strong lean figure, giving the impression of a health industrious person. The last picture before it turns into a pig is a fat obese man holding a McDonald's take away bag and soft drink.




3. NAME THE PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE CENTRAL TO YOUR
The public health issue that I am concentrating on is the over consumption of red meats. The cancers, illnesses and death that come from over consumption and highlighting the demand it places on the health department. The lack of public awareness of the disease burden caused by the over consumption of red-meats. My artefact represents this health issue by the visual change from the strong lean figure of the modern man to the obese 21st century man with his fast food.


4. LITERATURE REVIEW

Meat human health and development.

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Meat has been one of the most instrumental factors in the development of humans. High levels of knowledge, skill, coordination, and strength are required to achieve the high-quality resources humans consume. The productivity of a person increases with age as the investment of time in acquiring skill and knowledge happens over a life time. Long human life span has evolved with the lengthening of juvenile periods; increased brain capacity was one of the results of the longer juvenile period. The dietary shift to large game animals helped facilitate this evolution as the older men could feed the family on one kill. Leading to the younger family members spending more time acquiring skills and developing their brain.
(Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000)








81262896.jpgWhat we need to consume in a day.
Fat- 70 grams
Sodium- 2,300 milligrams
Protein- 50 grams
Carbohydrates- 310 grams
Fiber, Vitamins and minerals


What we do consume.

table 1.png
















table 2.png
table 3.png

pictures retrieved from (CSIRO, 2011).
The tables above show just how much and what we are consuming. If we look at an average pub meal being a 300gram steak contains. The steak contains 98gram of protein 48 grams over the daily recommended intake and 19 grams of fat 1/3 of are daily fat intake.
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Typical nutritional content of

110 grams of meat
Source
calories
protein
carbs
fat
fish
110–140
20–25 g
0 g
1–5 g
chicken breast
160
28 g
0 g
7 g
lamb
250
30 g
0 g
14 g
steak (beef top round)
210
36 g
0 g
7 g
steak (beef T-bone)
450
25 g
0 g
35 g
(Polidori, P.(2011).


clown.jpgThe pub meal is over are daily intake of protein, but if we take into account that over things we eat throughout the day all so contain fat and protein we are far above that is recommended intake for us.

If we take the nutritional information of a big Mac (show below) as an example of a meal that is high in saturated fat. The sugars and sodium in the burger comes from the bun but the high fat content comes from the meet patty.


The protein is lower but the fat content is much higher. The consumption of MacDonald’s and other highly saturated fat fast foods is becoming more common in western society. Epidemiology shows that it is the low socio-economic people of our society are the highest consumers of these foods. They all so consume less fresh fruit and high fiber food. (Colin Tudge,. 2004).





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Big mac nutritional information.
According to McDonald's, 2012

Avg Qty / Serve
%DI
Avg Qty / 100g
Energy (KJ)
2060
24%
1030
Energy (Cal)
493
24%
245
Protein (g)
25.2
50%
12.5
Fat, total (g)
26.9
38%
13.4
Saturated Fat (g)
10.7
44%
5.3
Carbohydrate(g)
35.3
11%
17.6
Sugars (g)
5.9
7%
2.9
Sodium (mg)
859
37%
427


Women
Bread, cereals, rice, past noodles
Vegetables, legumes
Fruit
Milk, yogurt and cheese
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nut’s and legumes
Extra food
Women 19-60 years of age
4-9
5
2
2
1
0-2 ½
Pregnant
4-6
5-6
4
2
1 ½
0 – 2 ½
Breastfeeding
5-7
7
5
2
2
0-2 ½
(Polidori, P.,(2011).
To the top is a table of serving sizes for women. The 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend eating red meat as part of a healthy diet young women particularly when pregnant. As you can see pregnant and breastfeeding women need to eat more meat. Not eating meat when pregnant is possible but requires a large amount of work as needing to consume the nutrients to support the growth of a child is large (CSIRO, 2011).
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Over-consumption of red meat and Disease.


pooh.pngThe Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) have outlined that in 2009, the leading cause of death for all Australians was ischaemic heart disease, which includes angina, blocked arteries of the heart and heart attacks. Malhotra's, 1973 study hypothesises that dietary factors play a crucial part in Ischaemic heart disease which suggests this disease is a preventable one. Individual consuming diets that are high in meat and that include fewer vegetables, fruits and high fiber foods are more susceptible to diseases such as cancers, illnesses and death.

In 2003, low fruit and vegetable and high meat consumption was estimated to be responsible for 2.1% of the total burden of disease in Australia (Australian Institute of Health and Well being, 2003). Some of the diseases that caused by the over consumption of red meat causes:

Diabetes

Studies have shown that diets high in saturated fat have been associated with increased risk of diabetes & that this saturated fat content is often found in red meat. The rise of free fatty acids (FFAs) in blood interferes with glucose metabolism (Singh, P., 2008)
.

CVD

Studies have also shown an increased risk of CVD due to the consumption of a red meat & saturated fats. This happens because of the increase of high density lipoproteins in the blood stream that contribute to atherosclerosis (Luciano, 2009; MLA, 2012)

download.jpgObesity



Due to the increased intake of fats, studies have shown that meat eaters generally have a larger BMI and increased risk of obesity. Obesity leads to a number of other health issues increase the likely hood of an earlier death (Lori Wiviott Tishler. 2012).
In a 1986 study, Japanese researchers discovered cancer developing in rats that were fed "heterocyclic amines," compounds that are generated from overcooking meat under high heat. Further study showed that N-nitroso compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines all contributed to cancer. (Pan, A. et al., 2012).

No study has ever found a direct cause-and-effect relationship between red-meat consumption and cancer.


5. CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS
images.jpgSuper_Size_Me.jpgThe culture of eating meat in Australia is well ingrained. Australia day is celebrated by barbequing a mix of meats while drinking with friends. When partaking in this social activity no one thinks about the health ramifications of over consumption. The real man eats meat and lots of it while vegetarians and vegetarian meals have the stigma of an unmanly alternative for the extremist left wing. While the real man will enter himself into an eating competition and eat more food in one sitting then a whole African family. Having the ability to eat meat has all ways been a representation of a person’s health and welfare, as animals are an expensive commodity. This conception is ingrained into western society from long ago and shows no pattern of leaving any time soon.

The most disturbing social aspect of over consumption is the apparent acceptance of risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and death. Telling a smoker that they are killing themselves is socially unacceptable however tell an obese person they our overweight and shouldn't eat fast food you are considered to be rude.
Education is the key to addressing this health issue. A number of people have taken it a pone themselves to help educate the general public. Jamie Oliver started a campaign to introduce healthy eating in England’s school cafeterias, razing cultural awareness on the effects of an unhealthy diet. Super size me a 2007 movie by Morgan Spurlock showed the effects of a person only consuming MacDonald’s, bring into the light just how bad fast food really is.
Moves and T.V. shows don’t solve the problem as children pick up a lot of their behavior patterns from their parents, if the parents feed child a lot of fast food they themselves will continue to do this throughout their life. This flow on effect of bad behavior through generations is what needs to stop. Public health needs to work on educating not only the children but the parents as well (Luciano, F. B. 2009).
Low socio-economic groups in our society are all ways the most vulnerable, in rural towns and communities the price of fresh food is higher than in the cities. Leading to a higher consumption of red meats in these communities, state and federal government needs to look into business subsidies to help the transport of fresh food to tease communities (Dillard, C. J.,(2000)
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6.ANALYSIS OF THE ARTEFACT AND YOUR OWN LEARNING REFLECTIONS
meat_cereals.jpgMy artefact “Evolution” by Patrick Boivin is an amazing and compelling piece of art. Not only is it visually stimulating but I find the underlining theme/point it puts across to be a light hearted view on what is a real public health issue. Although the art work was made to be shared for free on the internet I could imagine if it was a painting people would pay a lot of money for it. This project has taught me a lot, but the biggest lessen was just how much people in western society over consume. I have no doubt in my mind that future generations well be amazed at just how much our generation over consumed. I think the people of the future will look back at our generation and see selfish consumers only concerned with their bank account and themselves. I liken animals to oil in the fact that they are not
infinet, as more people populate this world there will be less space. Less space for every one including animals, as future generations eat less meat people will look back at us and see us as the fat over consumers we are. Eating animals is not overall evil, it is natural for us to it animals and have needed meat to evolve into the animals we are today. Just we as a society need to moderate are consumption of red meats to avoid the diseases that come from over consumption.

7.Reference list


CSIRO (2011) The facts on eating red meat. Retrieved October 27,2013 from http://www.csiro.au/en/Outcomes/Health-and-Wellbeing/Prevention/The-facts-on-eating-red-meat.aspx

Colin Tudge. (2004). It's a meat market. London: Reed Business Information UK.
Dietitians Association of Australia (n.d.) Red meat and mortality. Retrieved October 29,2013 from http://daa.asn.au/for-the-media/hot-topics-in-nutrition/red-meat-and-mortality/

Dietitians Association of Australia (n.d.) Red meat and mortality. Retrieved October 27,2013 from http://daa.asn.au/for-the-media/hot-topics-in-nutrition/red-meat-and-mortality/

Dillard, C. J., & German, J. B. (2000). Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and human health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(12), 1744-1756. doi:10.1002/1097- 0010(20000915)80:12<1744::AID-JSFA725>3.0.CO;2-W

Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 9(4), 156-185. doi:10.1002/1520-6505(2000)9:4<156::AID-EVAN5>3.0.CO;2-7

Luciano, F. B. (2009). The impacts of lean red meat consumption on human health: a review. CyTA: Journal of Food, 7(2), 143-151. doi: 10.1080/19476330902940523.

Lori Wiviott Tishler. (2012). Study: Red meat raises death rates. Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Reviews of Health News,
National health and medical research council, 2012. the Australian guide to healthy eating. Backgroud information for consumers. Retrieved from http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines/australian-guide-healthy-eating

National health and medical research council, 2012. The Australian guide to healthy eating. Backgroud information for consumers. Retrieved from http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines/australian-guide-healthy-eating

Mcdonald's, 2013. nutrition. Retrieved November 27 ,2013 from http://mcdonalds.com.au/our-food/nutrition

Pan, A., Sun, Q., Bernstein, A., Schulze, M., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Willett, W. & Hu, F. (2012). Red meat consumption and mortality: results from two prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med, 172(7), 555-563. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed 2011.2287.

Polidori, P., Ortenzi, A., Vincenzetti, S., & Beghelli, D. (2011). Dietary properties of lamb meat and human health. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 4(1), 53-56. doi:10.1007/s12349-010-0032-9

Vang A., Singh, P., Lee, J., Haddad, E. & Brinegar, C. (2008). Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies. Annals of nutrition and metabolism, 52(2), 96-104. doi: 10.1159/000121365.

9. Reflection

Your wiki has given me insight into the exact reasoning behind their removal in regards to the complaint, especially from religious groups such as the Australian Christian Lobby. While it is disappointing to know how they responded to this particular advertisement, I was curious to know if such groups had reacted as strongly to any other forms of over-sexualised advertisements that depicted heterosexual scenes instead? It would have provided an interesting comparison and maybe revealed whether or not there was more of a bias against non-heterosexual advertisements or whether these religious groups are really just overly sensitive to the issue of public sexual education.


I felt the title of your wikipage was eye catching and made an easy pick for me to further explore. The artefact was very simple and allowed me before reading the page to wonder a little about what it could be and the explanation of what it was very clear and concise which added strength to the reason why it is a public health issue. The moral panic and social stigma that was explained that highly affect a drug user I felt was very a good point. The wiki lacked some explanations in smaller parts but I felt the message was clear and I took a great deal away from this top from this very interesting wiki.